Analysis and Cases of 169 Targets under Sustainable Development Goals (123)
The United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development covers 17 goals, the 14th of which is “Life Below Water”, namely: Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development.
Under this major goal, there are 10 targets, the 14.7of which is “By 2030, increase the economic benefits to small island developing States and least developed countries from the sustainable use of marine resources, including through sustainable management of fisheries, aquaculture and tourism.”
To reap benefits of “Massive” blue economy, small islands, least developed coastal states need multidimensional vulnerability index that addresses risks
To realize the economic potential, she said small island developing states and least developed coastal countries will need strategies guaranteeing the sustainability of their traditional activities and efforts to develop emerging industries, such as maritime transport, port activities, shipbuilding, marine biotechnology, sustainable tourism and aquaculture.
Marine trade generates an estimated US$2.5 trillion annually, she added, making it the seventh largest economy in the world. WTO and multilateralism provide a predictable trading environment and facilitate flows and investments. WTO rules, together with major advances in finance, transport and communications, have enabled innovation, supported the creation of value chains and can now support the sustainable blue economy.
In these circumstances, coastal small island developing States and least developed nations need technical and financial assistance, along with capacity-building in a wide range of ocean management tools, such as compliance and monitoring of fisheries, marine spatial planning, the establishment of marine protected areas and the fight against marine pollution.
However, these countries need help to remove barriers to private investment and put in place innovative instruments, such as blue bonds, debt-to-nature swaps and blue carbon financing. In addition to their remoteness, small population, narrow fiscal space and high dependence on economic sectors severely affected by the pandemic, they are not eligible for concessional financing, due to their classification as middle- and high-income countries.
In response to calls by small islands for a reassessment of their eligibility, UNDP has developed a multidimensional vulnerability index reflecting the traditional and emerging risks faced by all developing countries. It shows that most small island developing States are much more vulnerable than their income level alone may suggest. If this index were used as a financing criterion, rather than per capita income, small island developing States would save an average 1.5 per cent of their GDP per year in interest payments, she explained.
Sanda O jiambo, assistant secretary-general of the United Nations Global Compact, stressed the critical importance of the blue economy for coastal small island developing States and least developed countries whose ocean resources are a way to recover from the pandemic and move towards inclusive and sustainable development.
China is committed to providing both “fish and the way to fish” in South-South cooperation
In September 2020, during the general debate of the 75th session of the United Nations General Assembly, China announced the establishment of the third China-FAO South-South Cooperation Trust Fund with a scale of US $50 million. Since the fund was formally established in 2009, the total amount of donations from China has reached 130 million US dollars.
China has carried out South-South cooperation under the framework of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Through activities such as knowledge sharing, technical exchanges, capacity building, and experiments and demonstrations, China has contributed to the improvement of food security and nutrition in developing countries especially the least developed countries, the reduction of poverty in rural areas, and increasing the participation of rural women and youth in agricultural development.
China-FAO South-South Cooperation Trust Fund projects cover a wide range of areas, including increasing agricultural output and productivity, building a sustainable food system, developing tropical and dry farming, and improving disaster and risk resilience.
Since the establishment of the fund, hundreds of Chinese experts and technicians have been sent to more than a dozen developing countries in Asia and Africa to share knowledge and technology with farmers there. They have improved agricultural productivity and sustainable development level in fields such as grain production, animal husbandry, horticulture, fishery, aquaculture, and soil and water management and protection.
They have taught local farmers how to grow hybrid rice in Madagascar, diagnosed and treated animal diseases in Ethiopia, and taught fruit farmers how to grow mangoes in Namibia... In addition, 1,000 trainees from more than 100 countries have participated in more than 40 capacity-building activities, and, in rural areas,70,000 people have become grassroots direct beneficiaries, and hundreds of thousands of people have become grassroots indirect beneficiaries. The fund will make a positive contribution to realizingthe UN’s 2030 Sustainable Development Goals and ensuring food security and nutrition for all.
Uganda-China Friendship Agricultural Technology Demonstration Center, a “model of South-South Cooperation”
The Uganda-China Friendship Agricultural Technology Demonstration Center is located between Kampala, the capital of Uganda, and the Entebbe International Airport. It is also the Uganda Aquatic Research and Development Center and the Aquaculture Demonstration Base of the China-UNFAO-Uganda (Phase III) South-South Cooperation Project. The Chinese government, the UN Food and Agriculture Organization and the Ugandan government have implemented the first two South-South cooperation projects. A total of about 50 Chinese experts and technicians went to the field to help Uganda improve food security and reduce hunger and poverty. The projects have won good political, economic and social benefits, received written praise from the president of Uganda, and won the title of best poverty reduction case in the “First Global Poverty Reduction Case Collection Activity”. Leveraging the platform of “South-South Cooperation”, Chinese experts have trained nearly 100,000 local agricultural officials, technicians and farmers, imparted practical agricultural technology and management experience to the recipient countries, and trained a large number of agricultural development talents. It was called “A model of South-South Cooperation”.
Building a blue economy in small island nations
In recent decades, we have witnessed a dramatic rise in marine activities so much so that scientists have named it “Blue Acceleration.” By 2030, many ocean-based industries have the potential to outperform the growth of the global economy, both in terms of value added and employment. These industries include offshore wind, tidal and wave energy; offshore aquaculture; cruise tourism; maritime surveillance and marine biotechnology. Projections suggest that the ocean economy could reach over US $3 trillion by the end of the decade.
Investing in an ocean economy clearly makes economic sense. Each dollar invested will yield, on average, five dollars in return, according to a recent analysis by the High Level Panel for a Sustainable Ocean Economy. One group of nations in particular, small island developing States (SIDS), can reap the benefits of a rapidly growing ocean economy. While they may be small in size, many refer to themselves as “large ocean states,” and clearly for good reason. Through their exclusive economic zones (EEZs), SIDS control some 30% PDF of all oceans and seas. The size of some EEZs is truly breath-taking. For example, Saint Lucia has a marine reserve the size of Germany, while Tuvalu has an EEZ 27,000 times its land mass. The combined EEZs of Mauritius and the Seychelles represent an area bigger than India.
In the Pacific island nation of Palau, the Palau National Marine Sanctuary (PNMS) went into effect on January 1, 2020. The sanctuary has closed 80% of Palau’s EEZ to all forms of extractive activities including all types of fishing. Twice the size of Mexico, it is among the world’s largest marine protected areas and follows earlier ambitious conservation efforts where the country designated it’s entire EEZ in 2009 as a shark sanctuary.
And in the Caribbean, Belize has become the first country in the Americas to complete a debt conversion for ocean conservation which will restructure US $550 million of external commercial debt, 30 percent of the country’s GDP, and reduce its national debt by 12 percent. Belize’s investment will see US $180 million being put back into the conservation of its marine ecosystems over the next two decades. This is clearly not just an investment in nature but livelihoods too. Tourism, an estimated 25 percent of which is reef based, creates 41 percent of Belize’s national income.
Going forward, blueeconomy will spur a new generation of ocean economy partnerships between the global business community and SIDS governments.
The Global Sustainable Aquaculture Advancement Partnership opens a new chapter in South-South technical cooperation
With the title of “Chinese Fish Farming Experience Realizes the Entrepreneurial Dream of African Youth,” the official website of the China International Development Cooperation Agency reported the typical deeds of Mr. David Murica, a Ugandan fishery expert trained by the Freshwater Fishery Research Center, who applied Chinese fishery technology to promote the development of Uganda’s aquaculture industry, served the improvement of local people’s livelihood, and promoted the friendly cooperation of China-Uzbekistan fishery. The deeds of Mr. Murica are a model of implementing sustainable aquaculture created by the Freshwater Center under the leadership of the Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences on the basis of the Global Sustainable Aquaculture Advancement Partnership (GSAAP), a new global partnership platform. It is also a vivid case of the center serving the purpose of the GSAAP, practicing the concept of a community with a shared future for mankind, and serving the sustainable development of the global aquaculture industry with Chinese technology and Chinese solutions.
Shenzhen Leiming Technology and Hisense Group provide aid materials to the China-Egypt South-South Cooperation Project
The Shipment Ceremonyfor the Aids in the China-Egypt South-South Cooperation on Climate Change Project was held in the form of an online video conference. This cooperation project is a specific measure to implement the “Ten, Hundred, Thousand” initiative and the Belt and RoadSouth-SouthCooperation Initiative on Climate Change. In this assistance project, Shenzhen Leiming Technology Development Co., Ltd. provided solar products including 1,000 sets of household solar photovoltaic power supply systems, 1,835 sets of solar LED street lights, and 40,000 LED bulbs and tubes, etc. Hisense Group provided 906 energy-saving air conditioners. Hisense Air Conditioning adheres to the main goal of high-quality and sustainable development, and takes green and low-carbon as the main path of action. It is committed to product innovation, and fully supports the green and low-carbon development of Egypt. More importantly, the air conditioners in this project use environmentally friendly refrigerants that will not damage the ozone layer, which greatly improves the environmental protection attributes of air conditioners.
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) initiated by the United Nations
On January 1, 2016, the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), including 169 targets, of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development — adopted by world leaders in September 2015 at an historic UN Summit — officially came into force. Countries will mobilize efforts to end all forms of poverty, fight inequalities and tackle climate change, while ensuring that no one is left behind.