Analysis of 169 targets under SDGs (138)

E_2018_SDG_Poster_without_UN_emblem_Letter US.png

The United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development covers 17 goals, the 15th of which is “Life on Land,” namely: Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss.

E_SDG goals_icons-individual-rgb-15.png

Under this major goal, there are 12 targets, the 15.c of which is Enhance global support for efforts to combat poaching and trafficking of protected species, including by increasing the capacity of local communities to pursue sustainable livelihood opportunities.

●Current Situation

The World

Poaching and illegal trade of species present real environmental dangers


Image source: UNODC

The poaching and illegal trade of thousands of species across the globe present real environmental dangers and undermine the rule of law, the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) said, urging shared responsibility among the international community in tackling wildlife and forest crime. According to Criminal justice response to wildlife crime in Thailand, the only legal way to obtain tigers in Thailand is for the (non-commercial) purpose of a zoo.

The awareness of poaching prevention is growing around the world and the technological methods and tools are constantly evolving. WWF-Pakistan and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to work together through innovative means to curb illegal wildlife trade in Pakistan. WWF-Pakistan initiated a snow leopard conservation initiative focusing on adoption of zero-poaching framework to protect the species from poaching and illegal trade. This included piloting of Spatial Monitoring and Reporting Tool (SMART), a technology based approach to support effective conservation of the species.

Source: UNODC, WWF


Illegal hunting widespread


Image source: SMART

Illegal hunting in China is widespread in 319 prefecture-level cities. Among them, East China and Central China are the hotspots where related cases occur. These areas contain not only more cases of illegal hunting, but also more cases of large individual hunters. However, most of the cases involving threatened species are distributed in South China and Southwest China. Some areas closer to urban markets have a higher density of illegal hunting cases, further confirming the commercial nature of illegal hunting.

In terms of anti-poaching measures, China has gradually improved the level of informatization, improved the ecological information monitoring system, and strengthened cooperation between the public sector and enterprises. In 2022, the Maluan Mountain Country Park Management Center in Pingshan District, Shenzhen carried out a pilot project to monitor the diversity of wild animals in Maluan Mountain, and deployed several sets of infrared-triggered sensor cameras in the wildlife activity areas of the park.

Source: China Biodiversity Conservation and Green Development, Zhihu, Maluan Mountain Country Park Management Center 


The World

SMART: a holistic conservation area management platform


Image source: SMART 

SMART is a holistic conservation area management platform, including mobile, desktop, and cloud-based components with a wide range of applications in conservation practice. This platform allows conservationists to easily collect, visualize, store, analyze, report and act on a wide range of data relevant for protecting wildlife and improving your overall conservation impact.

Transforming data into usable information helps managers allocate their time and resources more effectively, feeding clear results back to frontline staff. SMART’s success derives from a bottom-up approach, drawing directly from the needs identified by staff working on the ground.


The SMART platform consists of a set of software and analysis tools designed to help conservationists manage and protect wildlife and wild places. SMART can help standardize and streamline data collection, analysis, and reporting, making it easier for key information to get from the field to decision-makers.

In the field, practitioners can use an app called SMART Mobile on their smartphones to record data about what they encounter, and track where their patrols go. Information on animals, illegal activities, and conservation actions taken are recorded and then fed into a central database, called SMART Desktop.


Data can then be quickly analyzed, visualized, mapped and acted upon so that park managers can rapidly respond to threats. Standardized reports can also be configured and run with just a few clicks, ensuring that key information can be delivered to decision-makers in a timely fashion.

SMART also includes a series of additional applications and functionalities to assist you transform your raw data into usable information.


In 2022, SMART implemented SMART Connect as a Service, launched Demonstration Sites program, and developed first SMART online course. SMART Integration with Global Forest Watch was available through Gundi ( Georgia and Tanzania adopted SMART at national level.

Source: SMART

Prosecution review of Education for Nature – Vietnam (ENV)


Image source: Education for Nature – Vietnam (ENV)

Education for Nature – Vietnam (ENV) was established in 2000 as Vietnam’s first non-governmental organization focused on wildlife conservation. ENV has spearheaded efforts to end Vietnam’s illegal wildlife trade by employing out-of-the-box strategies that strengthen wildlife protection legislation and its application, provide support to law enforcement in addressing wildlife crime, engage the public to reduce consumer demand and mobilize public action to protect wildlife. ENV is committed to securing a better future for wildlife, both in Vietnam and globally.

The Prosecution Review of Wildlife Trafficking Cases in Vietnam is produced annually by ENV to evaluate the performance of Vietnam’s criminal justice system in dealing with wildlife trafficking cases.

Source: Education for Nature – Vietnam (ENV)


One Planet’s campaign and conservation activities


Image source: One Planet

In 2022, One Planet Conservation Foundation launched a campaign to protect endangered flagship species such as elephants, as well as advocating for sustainable travel, disseminating laws and regulations, and conducting offline exhibitions.

One Planet's Siberian tiger and habitat conservation activities have completed the assessment of 5,000 square kilometers of Siberian tiger habitat and made recommendations for protection. Forty-seven hectares of Siberian tiger habitat was replanted with coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forests, with a total of more than 70,000 trees. Forty square kilometers of sparse forest land was replanted with shrubs, totaling more than 30,000 trees. Anti-poaching monitoring and evaluation mechanisms and tools were applied and promoted. Three green community demonstrations were established in Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces and the Northeast China Tiger and Leopard National Park, and a total of 120 biomass stoves were donated. Two hundred farmers were introduced to earthworm composting technology, and two pilot rapid assessments of human-animal conflict were completed. The foundation also supported a ranger competition.

Source: China Environment News

Investigation and discussion of anti-poaching in the field of e-commerce


Image source: NatureFields

Four non-governmental environmental protection teams, namely NatureFields, Shenzhen Zero Waste | Toxics-Free Corps, Return to the Wilderness, and Plastic Free China, jointly held the "2023 E-commerce Food Consumption Green Action Experience Exchange Meeting", sharing their public welfare advocacy actions and survey results from three aspects: pesticide and veterinary drug residues, sales of game and its poaching tools, and reduction of food packaging materials. 

From November 2022 to October 2023, the Wildlife-Free E-Commerce Initiative supervised, reported and advocated for the supervision and reporting of the goods or video content related to illegal wildlife trade, game eating, and biodiversity loss on Internet platforms (traditional e-commerce platforms and short video platforms). As of September 2023, more than 6,000 reports were completed to the platforms or relevant departments, and 30% of the reports were been accepted, which were considered valid reports. More than 100 pieces of information related to illegal wildlife were handed over to relevant parties, and information related to the sale of hunting tools and restricted pesticides used to poison birds on Internet platforms was systematically investigated and reported. 

The Wildlife-Free E-Commerce Initiative suggests that online platforms such as e-commerce platforms and bulletin boards strengthen the supervision and handling of the trade in illegal wild animals and plants and their products and hunting tools on their platforms, block and deal with text, video and other information about the sales not in compliance with the rules and regulations, promptly submit users and clues related to obvious illegal acts to the relevant departments such as public security and forestry, and strengthen the popularization of science related to wildlife and biodiversity conservation. At the same time, it is recommended that the public actively participate in the supervision of information related to illegal wildlife and their products on online platforms.

Source: China Environment News, Sohu


Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) initiated by the United Nations

On January 1, 2016, the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), including 169 targets, of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development — adopted by world leaders in September 2015 at an historic UN Summit — officially came into force. Countries will mobilize efforts to end all forms of poverty, fight inequalities and tackle climate change while ensuring that no one is left behind.